This book constitutes the proceedings of the First IAPR International Conference on Discrete Geometry and Mathematical Morphology, DGMM 2021, which was held during May 24-27, 2021, in Uppsala, Sweden. The conference was created by joining the International Conference on Discrete Geometry for computer Imagery, DGCI, with the International Symposium on Mathematical Morphology, ISMM. The 36 papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 59 submissions. They were organized in topical sections as follows: applications in image processing, computer vision, and pattern recognition; discrete and combinatorial topology; discrete geometry - models, transforms, visualization; discrete tomography and inverse problems; hierarchical and graph-based models, analysis and segmentation; learning-based approaches to mathematical morphology; multivariate and PDE-based mathematical morphology, morphological filtering. The book also contains 3 invited keynote papers.