This text, the only one of its kind on the market, surveys the development of the field of human evolution from its inception through today. It provides students with a broad contrast enabling them to fully understand the value and role of current paleoanthropological research. Features: An historical approach - Establishes for students the nature of paleoanthropology through the historical development of the field from 1860 through 2000 and shows students that paleoanthropology is a remarkably progressive field.. A focus on the debates in the field of human evolution (especially the phylogenetic or genealogical debates)– Analyzes four distinct debates, presented separately from their inception to the present: 1) Humankind's place among the primates; 2) The place of the australopithecines relative to the human line; 3) Debates on human phylogeny proper; 4) Proposed scenarios of hominization. Presentation and analysis of the viewpoints of over 150 scholars - Gives students a valuable reference work for the future (includes over 1200 references in the bibliography) as well as a comprehensive text for today. For junior/senior courses in Human Evolution and Paleoanthropology in Anthropology departments.